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What are the major signs of acute renal failure?

2016-12-27 10:03
A, polyuria period when the ARF were gradually increasing the amount of urine, systemic edema, 24 hour urine volume is more than 250ml/m2, which is a diuretic period, usually lasts 1-2 weeks (up to 1 months) in this period due to the large number of urination and dehydration can occur, hyponatremia and hypokalemia. In the early stage, endotoxemia continued or worsened, and the renal function recovered gradually.
Two, the recovery period after total Mongolia kidney diuresis, improve urine normal, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine gradually returned to normal, and the renal concentration function takes months to return to normal, a few patients left part of irreversible renal damage. This period of children can show weakness, emaciation, malnutrition, anemia and low immune function.
Three, oliguria period oliguria generally lasts 1-2 weeks, the elderly up to 4-6 weeks, the longer the duration, the more serious renal damage, continuous oliguria greater than 5 days, or no urine greater than 10 days, the prognosis is not bad. System symptoms of oliguria:
1 retention of sodium and water, children with water poisoning can be manifested as systemic edema, hypertension, pulmonary edema, brain edema and heart failure, sometimes due to water retention may appear diluted hyponatremia.
2 metabolic acidosis characterized by nausea and vomiting, fatigue, drowsiness, rapid breathing, loss of appetite, and even coma, blood pH value decreased.
3 uremia due to renal excretion of various toxic substances in vivo accumulation of four, systemic systemic poisoning symptoms can occur. The severity was consistent with the concentration of urea nitrogen and creatinine in blood.
Digestive system: (1) showed loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea, severe gastrointestinal bleeding, and gastrointestinal bleeding can aggravate azotemia.
(4): ARF blood system is often accompanied by normocytic normochromic anemia with a total of Mongolia boots, renal deterioration aggravated due to reduced erythropoiesis, extravascular hemolysis, blood dilution and gastrointestinal bleeding caused by. Bleeding (bleeding gums, nasal bleeding, skin petechiae and gastrointestinal bleeding) due to thrombocytopenia and platelet dysfunction caused by DIC and. The number of white blood cells in early stage of acute renal failure Chang Zenggao, neutrophil ratio also increased.
(2) the cardiovascular system: mainly due to retention of sodium and water is caused by hypertension and heart failure, also the occurrence of arrhythmia and pericarditis.
(3) nervous system symptoms: lethargy, straight confusion, anxiety, convulsions, coma and autonomic dysfunction such as sweating, or dry skin, can be expressed as consciousness, behavior, memory, feeling, emotion and other disorders.
4 electrolyte disorders common high potassium, high magnesium, high phosphorus, low calcium, low sodium and low blood chlorine.
5 infection is the most common complication of ARF, respiratory tract and urinary tract infection, pathogenic bacteria into Staphylococcus aureus and gram negative bacilli most see.
Expert tip: due to nutrition caused by renal failure is mostly non oliguria renal failure, usually renal failure symptoms lighter. Complications are relatively small, will not endanger life. And oliguria renal failure is more serious. Difficult to control, more disease. So such patients must pay more attention to friends carefully. In the case of oliguria renal failure occurs, to the hospital for treatment as soon as possible.
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