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Nephrotic syndrome in children with complications? Nursing c

2017-03-09 11:13

Children with nephrotic syndrome is a common type of kidney disease, the incidence of the disease has brought great suffering to children with nephrotic syndrome, if got timely treatment, will lead to many concurrent symptoms, such as harm to bring the child more, so, what complication in children with nephritic syndrome have? Here to introduce you.

Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is not an independent disease, but a group of clinical syndromes in glomerular disease. Typical performance as proteinuria (daily >3.5g/1.73m2 body surface area), hypoproteinemia (plasma <30g/L), edema with or without hyperlipidemia diagnostic criteria should be proteinuria and hypoalbuminemia. A large number of proteinuria is a feature of glomerular disease, so it is rare to have such a large amount of proteinuria in renal vascular disease or tubulointerstitial disease. Because of hypoproteinemia, hyperlipidemia and edema are the consequences of a large number of proteinuria, therefore, the diagnostic criteria should be based on a large number of proteinuria.

The symptoms of children with nephrotic syndrome is mainly proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia and hyperlipidemia, and different degrees of edema in children with nephrotic syndrome edema of lower extremity pitting oedema, a common complication in children with nephrotic syndrome is introduced in detail as follows:

(1) infection: due to the loss of a large number of immunoglobulin in the urine, plasma protein, affecting the formation of antibodies. The use of corticosteroids and cytotoxic agents, make the whole body resistance drops, prone to infection, such as skin infection, primary peritonitis, respiratory tract infection, urinary tract infection, and even induce sepsis.

Coronary heart disease (CHD): children with nephrotic syndrome often have high blood fat and high blood coagulation state, so prone to coronary heart disease (CHD), 2. It has been reported that the incidence of myocardial infarction in patients with nephrotic syndrome is 8 times higher than that in normal subjects. Coronary heart disease (CHD) has become the third leading cause of death in nephrotic syndrome (second only to infection and renal failure).

(3) thrombosis: prone to thrombosis in children with nephrotic syndrome, especially the incidence of membranous nephropathy of up to 25% ~ 40%. The causes of thrombus are edema, patient activity, venous stasis, high blood lipids, blood viscosity increased, the concentration of fibrinogen and high content of V, x, VII and VIII factor increases and the use of adrenal cortical hormone and prone to blood hypercoagulability,

(4) acute renal failure: pediatric patients with nephrotic syndrome due to massive proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia and hyperlipidemia, body is in a low blood volume and hypercoagulable state, vomiting, diarrhea, anti hypertension and plenty of diuresis, can decrease the renal blood perfusion in a sudden decrease, and the glomerular filtration rate decreased, resulting in acute renal failure. In addition, nephrotic syndrome, renal interstitial edema, protein concentration, the formation of tubular blockage of renal tubules and other factors, can also cause acute renal failure.

(5) electrolyte and metabolic disorders: repeated use of diuretics or long-term unreasonable no salt, can be integrated in patients with secondary hyponatremia in children with nephrotic syndrome; use of adrenal cortical hormone and diuretics lead to a large number of micturition, if not timely supplement of potassium, prone to hypokalemia.

Families should pay attention to the following problems in the care of children

A reasonable and healthy diet plan for children

Family members to develop a reasonable and healthy diet plan for patients. In the diet control, every day to ensure 0.8 ~ 1.0g/kg protein intake, protein intake to eat soy or animal protein is appropriate. Daily intake of calories should be greater than 126kJ/kg. If the edema is serious, the diet to maintain a low salt, the children to eliminate edema, urine volume and then restore the normal amount of salt. At the same time, to ensure adequate intake of vitamins and trace elements.

Two, prevention of infection in patients

Prevention of infection is very important for children with kidney disease, because the children suffering from kidney disease, low immunity, easy to stimulate infection, threatening the lives of children. To strengthen the nursing of oral cavity, skin, 2 ~ 3 times of soda water gargle everyday, disinfection of the damaged skin and violet dianfu. In each step of treatment and care, adhere to aseptic operation.

Three, and more communication with children

Families should be discharged in accordance with the doctor's advice, strengthen communication and exchanges with their children. Children because of chronically ill treatment, prone to anxiety depression and other psychological problems, these negative emotions for children, parents should be timely guidance, help children to increase the determination and confidence to fight disease. Parents to help children with long-term, correct adherence to treatment. Parents should help their children to carry out appropriate physical exercise, to maintain the child's physical strength, enhance physical fitness.

 

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