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The Importance of Oriental Diet in Treating Renal Insufficiency

2017-05-31 10:19

Normal kidney with the formation of urine, excretion of metabolic waste, regulating water, electrolyte, acid-base balance, secretion of erythropoietin and synthetic vitamin D and other functions. When the renal function is damaged, there may be proteinuria, edema, hypertension, anemia, metabolic acidosis, azotemia, uremia and a series of symptoms, physical disease. The diet can reduce the formation of metabolic wastes, reduce the intake of harmful substances, maintain water, electrolytes, acid-base balance, maintain good nutrition, reduce the burden of renal excretion, reduce further damage to surviving nephrons, delay the development of disease is Treatment of chronic renal insufficiency is essential to a basic measure.

Principles and Methods of Diet Therapy:

1. Protein:

(1) the final metabolite of protein is urea, uric acid, creatinine and other nitrogen-containing substances, mainly by renal excretion. When the amount of protein in the diet exceeds the body's requirements, the excess will be broken down. Therefore, the number of proteins should first be limited.

(2) the degree to which the various proteins are used in the body (the price of the biomass) is different. Eggs, milk, meat, fish, poultry and other animal protein prices higher, is a high-quality protein, which produces less metabolic waste. Rice, flour, grains, beans and soy products and other plant protein protein prices are lower, more metabolic waste. Therefore, it is necessary to minimize the intake of plant protein, the total amount of protein in the premise of the corresponding increase in the proportion of high-quality protein, it is necessary to limit the number of proteins, but also improve the quality of the protein.

(3) the number of protein is not the less the better. Excessive restrictions are not only difficult for patients to accept, but also easily lead to malnutrition, reduce the resistance.

(4) chronic renal insufficiency undissolved patients daily protein intake 0.6g / kg; 3 times a week hemodialysis patients daily 1.0-1.2g / kg, of which 75% should be high-quality protein.

2. calories:

Intake of enough calories to ensure that the daily intake of protein is fully utilized, reducing the protein to provide heat and decomposition. General requirements per kilogram of body weight 35 kcal or more, at least to make weight does not decline, the source of heat from the sugar, vegetable oil, low protein starch.

3. Sodium:

Dietary sodium content should be depending on the function of the kidney and whether the edema, hypertension and may be. Clinical symptoms are stable, more urine output of patients 3-5g daily, or by 1-2g / d supply. Sodium is not only in the salt, soy sauce, monosodium glutamate, tomato sauce also contains sodium, should eat less, pickled food, choose more natural unprocessed food. Limit sodium food light and tasteless, it is recommended to use sweet and sour method, add onions, ginger, garlic, cinnamon and other condiments to increase the patient's appetite.

Potassium

Dietary potassium content is mainly based on potassium. When the urine is low, high potassium, should limit a variety of fresh fruits, vegetables, melons, all kinds of soup, broth and other high potassium foods; when the blood potassium is low or polyuria, vomiting, diarrhea, and eating Too little time, should increase the intake of potassium, especially fruit

Calcium

Patients with hypocalcemia, and dietary supplement difficult to meet the needs of calcium must be added, you can calcium, but also reduce the absorption of phosphorus in the diet.

6. Phosphorus and purine

Patients with hyperphosphatemia and hyperuricemia (uric acid is the final metabolite of purine), so in the limit of phosphorus and purine intake, eat less animal offal, broth, necessary to take with the phosphorus binder.

7. Vitamins

Need to add additional water-soluble vitamins, especially vitamin B6, C, folic acid and so on.

8. water

No dialysis, the amount of water intake for the day before the urine plus 500-800ml, hemodialysis daily weight changes to not more than 0.5kg principle.

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