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What are the clinical manifestations of nephrotic syndrome?

2017-10-15 15:28

What are the clinical manifestations of nephrotic syndrome? For nephrotic syndrome, people have a lot of questions, to know that many people in our kidney side are being troubled by the disease, then in the end nephrotic syndrome Of the clinical manifestations of what? In fact, want to understand this problem is very simple, the following let our experts for us to introduce it!

(1) a large number of proteinuria large number of proteinuria is the most important manifestations of nephrotic syndrome. Urine protein qualitative for ++ ~ ++++, children with quantitative> 0.1g / kg · d, adult ≥ 3.5g / d. Mostly selective proteinuria. The main component of albumin, can also include other plasma protein components. Due to protein caused by the appearance of the urine bubble urine.

(2) changes in plasma protein concentration ① hypoproteinemia This is the first symptom of nephrotic syndrome. Plasma total protein was significantly reduced, serum albumin <30g / L, children with nephritis <25g / L, albumin and globulin ratio often upside down. ② changes in other plasma protein components: α2 and β globulin increased, α1 globulin more normal, γ globulin levels depends on the primary disease; fibrinogen and Ⅴ, Ⅶ, Ⅷ and Ⅹ factors increased, the number of platelets mild increase. Antithrombin Ⅲ levels decreased, often formed hypercoagulable state. (P <0.05), fibrinogen degradation products increased, the protein content of iron (including iron, copper and zinc) decreased, and the levels of fibrinolytic enzymes increased, Proteins that bind to essential endocrine (thyroxine, cortisol, prostaglandin) and proteins that bind to active 25-OHVD3 also decrease.

(3) hyperlipidemia and lipid plasma cholesterol, triglyceride and phospholipids were significantly increased. Low density and very low density lipoprotein in the early can be increased, high density lipoprotein normal or decreased. Hyperlipidemia is a nephrotic syndrome in patients with arteriosclerosis complications more reasons, and the formation of thrombosis and progressive glomerulosclerosis. Lipid mainly manifested as the emergence of diastolic urine fat body, may be containing cholesterol composition of the epithelial cells or fat tube type.

(4) other due to long-term protein loss, there may be protein malnutrition, hair dry withered yellow, hair follicle keratosis, dry skin, prone to rash and ulcers, fingers, nails appear white stripes, soft flat. Often malnutrition anemia. Patients tend to show burnout, less action, the reaction to the surrounding environment indifferent. Pediatric growth retardation, easy to concurrent infection and so on.

Nephrotic syndrome, the clinical manifestations of the above experts after the introduction, I believe we must have some understanding of it, I wish you health

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