Uremic period is the end of chronic renal failure, uremia is not necessarily in the uremic period. Uremic period has a clear diagnostic criteria:According to the degree of renal dysfunction can be based on glomerular filtration rate (GFR),...
Uremia is a series of symptoms of renal excretion dysfunction, manifested in the following aspects:
(1) nocturia increased (urine output, urine frequency), early normal urine or increased, advanced oliguria or anuria.
(2) due to fluctuations in sodium intake, the occurrence of low sodium or hypernatremia, hyponatremia when uremic patients may have indifferent, unresponsive, fatigue, muscle spasms, convulsions.
(3) potassium metabolism in the early to maintain a balance, some patients due to anorexia, long-term use of diuretics can be hypokalemia, uremia manifested as fatigue, bloating, heart rate slightly or premature, tendon reflex weakened or disappeared, late The patient may have hyperkalemia.
(4) calcium and magnesium metabolic disorders must have low calcium high phosphorus and high magnesium, uremia performance of hypocalcemia convulsions, renal bone malnutrition.
(5) metabolic acidosis uremia patients with fatigue, nausea and vomiting, deep breathing, and even myocardial contraction weakness, blood pressure.
(1) digestive system: loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, stomatitis, colitis, gastrointestinal bleeding (with a small amount of hematemesis and black manure).
(2) the nervous system: uremia symptoms of fatigue, insomnia, inattention, confusion, delirium, coma, in addition to muscle spasms, peripheral nerve paresthesia.
(3) hematopoietic system: anemia, bleeding tendency and hypercoagulable state.
(4) cardiovascular system: hypertension, uremic pericarditis, uremic myocardial damage (cardiac hypertrophy, arrhythmia, heart failure, myocardial infarction).
(5) respiratory system: uremia lung or uremic interstitial pneumonia.
(6) skin: melanin calm, skin itching and so on.
3. Endocrine disorders: male uremic patients may have loss of libido, impotence infertility, male breast development; female patients with menstrual disorders, amenorrhea, infertility.
4. Metabolic disorders: impaired glucose tolerance, hyperlipidemia, hypoproteinemia, secondary hyperuricemia.
Uremic period is the end of chronic renal failure, uremia is not necessarily in the uremic period. Uremic period has a clear diagnostic criteria:
According to the degree of renal dysfunction can be based on glomerular filtration rate (GFR), serum creatinine (cr) levels are pided into three phases:
First, renal insufficiency compensatory GFR between 60-89ml / min, blood Cr> 133 --- 177umol / L, clinically in addition to primary disease performance, there is no other symptoms.
Second, renal decompensation or azotemia GFR between 15-59ml / min, Cr> 177umol / L, mild fatigue, loss of appetite and varying degrees of anemia and other symptoms.
Third, uremic period GFR <15ml / min, Cr ≥ 707umol / L, has obvious clinical symptoms of uremia.
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