Haemodialysis Complications

Hypotension (Low blood pressure)

This is related to the speed and amount of fluid removed from your blood. Giving you some intravenous fluids can easily reverse this. Symptoms can vary. Tell the nurse if you experience dizziness, nausea, cramps in legs or any ‘funny feeling’. The best way to prevent this is for you to stick to the fluid restrictions that are set for you so that you avoid gaining too much fluid/weight between dialysis sessions. A drop in blood pressure is a common side effect of hemodialysis, particularly if you have diabetes. Low blood pressure may be accompanied by shortness of breath, abdominal cramps, muscle cramps, nausea or vomiting.

Symptoms of low blood pressure: unsteadiness fainting blurred vision dizziness or lightheadedness heartbeats that suddenly become more noticeable (palpitations) confusion feeling sick (nausea) general weakness

Fluid Overload

Between sessions, patients can some times develop a condition called fluid overload. This is due to excess fluid building up in your body. Fluid overload can be mild and manifest itself as swollen ankles, or high blood pressure, or severe breathlessness. Constantly becoming fluid overloaded is not good for you, as it causes the blood pressure to rise and eventually damage the heart. If you think you are overloaded, contact the dialysis unit to organise extra dialysis to remove the fluid. If you are breathless or unwell, do not delay in contacting the dialysis unit.

Fluid Overload Aetiology:Heart failure Acute kidney injury - depending on severity and whether oliguric or not Increased antidiuretic hormone (ADH) secretion - eg, following head injury or major surgery

Bleeding From Access Point

After dialysis, the needles will be removed from your fistula or graft. Your nurse will take every care to ensure that bleeding has stopped before you leave the unit. If you should develop further bleeding, from your access site, apply a dry dressing to the site, apply gentle pressure to the area, and return to the unit immediately. If possible, call the unit to let them know.

INFECTION

Side effects of haemodialysis Side effects of haemodialysis Side effects of haemodialysis Side effects of haemodialysis

infection symptoms: Change in cough or new cough. Sore throat or new mouth sore. Shortness of breath. Nasal congestion. Stiff neck. Burning or pain with urination. Unusual vaginal discharge or irritation. Chills and sweats.

High potassium levels (hyperkalemia).

Potassium is a mineral that is normally removed from your body by your kidneys. If you consume more potassium than recommended, your potassium level may become too high. In severe cases, too much potassium can cause your heart to stop. In medical terms, this is known as hyperkalaemia. This means that there is too much potassium in the blood. This can be dangerous and life-threatening. High potassium can affect the muscles of the body including the heart, which could stop beating. By sticking to the diet, that the dietician has prescribed for you, you can avoid this serious complication.

What are the symptoms of hyperkalemia? nausea, tingling sensations, muscle weakness, fatigue.

Anemia.

Not having enough red blood cells in your blood (anemia) is a common complication of kidney failure and hemodialysis. Failing kidneys reduce production of a hormone called erythropoietin (uh-rith-roe-POI-uh-tin), which stimulates formation of red blood cells. Diet restrictions, poor absorption of iron, frequent blood tests, or removal of iron and vitamins by hemodialysis also can contribute to anemia.

Symptoms of Anemia:Weakness Pale or yellowish skin Irregular heartbeats Shortness of breath Dizziness or lightheadedness Fatigue Chest pain Cold hands and feet Headache

Muscle cramps.

Although the cause is not clear, muscle cramps during hemodialysis are common. Sometimes the cramps can be eased by adjusting the hemodialysis prescription. Adjusting fluid and sodium intake between hemodialysis treatments also may help prevent symptoms during treatments.

What causes muscle cramp: Sprains & Strains Peripheral Neuropathy Heat Emergencies Low Blood Potassium Low Blood Sodium (Hyponatremia) Rickets Hypoparathyroidism Kidney Failure Diabetic Ketoacidosis Glomerulonephritis ALS (Lou Gehrig's Disease) Chronic Kidney Disease

Access site complications.

Potentially dangerous complications ― such as infection, narrowing or ballooning of the blood vessel wall (aneurysm), or blockage ― can impact the quality of your hemodialysis. Follow your dialysis team's instructions on how to check for changes in your access site that may indicate a problem.

Bone diseases.

If your damaged kidneys are no longer able to process vitamin D, which helps you absorb calcium, your bones may weaken. In addition, overproduction of parathyroid hormone — a common complication of kidney failure — can release calcium from your bones. Between sessions, patients can some times develop a condition called fluid overload. This is due to excess fluid building up in your body. Fluid overload can be mild and manifest itself as swollen ankles, or high blood pressure, or severe breathlessness. Constantly becoming fluid overloaded is not good for you, as it causes the blood pressure to rise and eventually damage the heart. If you think you are overloaded, contact the dialysis unit to organise extra dialysis to remove the fluid. If you are breathless or unwell, do not delay in contacting the dialysis unit.

bone diseases symptoms: Injury Mineral deficiency Osteoporosis Metastatic cancer Bone cancer Disrupted blood supply to the bones Infection Leukemia

Hernia.

A hernia occurs when an organ pushes through an opening in the muscle or tissue that holds it in place. For example, the intestines may break through a weakened area in the abdominal wall. Hernias are most common in the abdomen, but they can also appear in the upper thigh, belly button, and groin areas. Most hernias are not immediately life threatening, but they don’t go away on their own and can require surgery to prevent potentially dangerous complications.

What are the symptoms of a hernia? weakness, pressure, or a feeling of heaviness in the abdomen acid reflux difficulty swallowing a burning, gurgling, or aching sensation at the site of the bulge weakness, pressure, or a feeling of heaviness in the abdomen

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